These before and after pictures show the old world order of Syria reflected for decades in history books; where people bought wares in marketplaces or mingled in mosque courtyards. They also reveal the shocking scale of devastation in all corners of the country and the damage done to Syria's soul and identity.
Aleppo, once Syria's largest city, now stands in ruins, ravaged by a war that is not only killing generations of Syrians but also eradicating all around them, including sites that have stood since the dawn of civilisation.
Ancient locations that were categorized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site have been reduced to rubble through looting, burning, and destruction.
One of the oldest covered marketplaces in the world is now in ruins; its maze of stone streets has been one of the most intense battlefields in the country for the past 18 months.
This series of before-and-after photos reveal just how much the once-vibrant historical city has been marred by war.